Finally, a business plan and a consolidated coordination action plan are developed..

Finally, a business plan and a consolidated coordination action plan are developed.

This situation is typical for Ukraine today. The level of labor productivity in the national economy and industry is quite low.

Recently, there has been a downward trend, and it is estimated that in industry it is about 10% of the level of productivity in the United States.

The model reflects the causal relationship between many variables and factors that affect performance.

According to foreign experience, this situation can be changed only by increasing productivity not only through the optimal use of resources, but also by creating a balance between economic, social and political structures of society.

Increasing productivity is an expression of the general economic law, the economic necessity of society and has the following goals:

strategic – raising the living standards of the population. Due to productivity growth in countries that have moved to a market economy, reached 40 to 90% of living standards; the nearest – increase in efficiency of activity of branches and the enterprises, and also real growth of personal incomes of workers.

In conditions of intensified competition in the markets of goods, services and labor, it is important to increase labor productivity in enterprises, which is manifested primarily in increasing the mass of products produced per unit time at constant quality, or improving quality and competitiveness at constant mass, which produced per unit time; reducing labor costs per unit of output.

In Ukraine, the formation of a market economy, the creation of competitive products, increase sales is possible only and conditions for efficient use of resources in each workplace, enterprise, ie deep reform of management, production and sale of products, consistent with such transformation processes as privatization, restructuring and adaptation to international standards. Productivity growth will also help boost employment.


Entrepreneurial activity: types and forms. Abstract

General Information. Production entrepreneurship. Commercial entrepreneurship. Financial entrepreneurship. Organizational-legal and organizational-economic forms of entrepreneurship

General Information

Entrepreneurial activity can be classified on various grounds: type of activity, forms of ownership, number of owners, organizational and legal and organizational and economic forms, the degree of use of hired labor, etc.

By type or purpose, business activities can be divided into production, commercial, financial, consulting, etc. All of these species can function separately or together.

According to the forms of ownership, the property of the enterprise can be personal, state, municipal, as well as be owned by public organizations. At the same time, the state may not establish restrictions and privileges in the exercise of property rights depending on the receipt of property in personal, state, municipal property or public organizations.

According to the number of owners, entrepreneurial activity can be individual and collective. In individual entrepreneurship, the property belongs to one individual. Collective entrepreneurship is the property that belongs simultaneously to several entities with a certain share of each of them or without certain shares. Possession, use and disposal of property that is in collective ownership is carried out with the consent of all owners.

Among the organizational and legal forms of entrepreneurship there are societies, public organizations, cooperatives; The main organizational and economic forms include: concerns, associations, consortia, syndicates, cartels, financial and industrial groups, holdings.

Production entrepreneurship

Industrial entrepreneurship can be called the leading type of entrepreneurship. It produces products, goods, robots, provides services, creates certain spiritual values.

Production entrepreneurship includes innovations, scientific and technical activities, direct production of goods and services, their production and consumption, as well as information activities in these areas. Any entrepreneur who has decided to engage in production activities must determine what specific goods he will produce, what types of services he will provide.

Then the entrepreneur begins marketing activities. To identify the needs of the product, the demand for it, he comes into contact with potential consumers, buyers of goods, with commodity organizations. The formal conclusion of negotiations can be a contract concluded between entrepreneurs and future buyers of goods.

Such a contract allows you to minimize business risk. Otherwise, the entrepreneur begins production activities for the production of goods, having only a verbal agreement.

An important stage of production is the acquisition or lease of factors of production. Such factors include fixed and working capital, labor, information.

The result of the production activities of the enterprise is the sale of products (robots, services) to the buyer, consumer or revenue of a certain amount of money. The difference between cash proceeds and production costs will be the company’s profit.

Commercial entrepreneurship

Commodity exchanges and trade organizations serve as a field of activity of commercial entrepreneurship.

The main content of commercial entrepreneurship are transactions and transactions of purchase and sale, in other words, the resale of goods and services. The general scheme of commercial entrepreneurship is to some extent similar to the scheme of production and entrepreneurial activity. However, unlike it, instead of material resources, the finished product is purchased here, which is then sold to the consumer.

Before starting a business, you need to perform market analysis. By means of marketing all kinds of a life cycle of the trading enterprise are carried out: market research, advancement of the goods on channels of the address to the final consumer, financial maintenance and reception of profit.

If the preliminary analysis of the market and the forecast testifies in favor of implementation of commercial business, the businessman needs to make the business plan in which the program of actions on implementation of the agreement and calculation of necessary expenses and expected results should be reflected.

In general, the program of any business includes:

hiring employees to perform trade and intermediary services; acquisition or rental of premises, warehouses, bases, outlets necessary for the storage and sale of goods; purchase of goods for its subsequent sale; raising funds for a loan to finance the agreement and subsequent repayment of the loan and interest for its use; receiving and paying for the services of third-party organizations and persons performing intermediary functions; obtaining or acquiring the necessary information necessary for planning, execution and regulation of the agreement; sale of goods to the buyer and receipt of revenue; registration of the agreement, payment of taxes and payments.

Finally, a business plan and a consolidated coordination action plan are developed.

Financial entrepreneurship

The sphere of activity of financial (financial and credit) entrepreneurship is circulation, exchange of values. The peculiarity of financial activity is that it penetrates into both production and commercial activities, although it can be independent – banking, insurance, etc. The main field of activity of financial entrepreneurship is commercial banks and stock exchanges.

A commercial bank is a financial and credit institution of the joint-stock type, which lends on a paid basis mainly to commercial organizations, which accepts monetary contributions (deposits) and other settlement operations on behalf of clients. The source of income of commercial banks is the difference between interest rates on deposits and loans.

Operations of commercial banks are divided into three groups:

passive (raising funds); active (placement of funds); commission-brokerage (performance of various operations on behalf of clients with payment of commission).

The stock exchange means an organized, regularly functioning securities market, which helps to increase capital mobility and identify the real value of assets.

The principle of operation of the stock exchange is based on the operational regulation of supply and demand. Securities are quoted on the stock exchange. They consist of a regular assessment by the specialists of the quotation department of the exchange of buyers ‘and sellers’ exchange rates for all securities passing through the exchange.

Organizational-legal and organizational-economic forms of entrepreneurship

Forms of entrepreneurship can be divided into organizational and legal and organizational and economic. Among the organizational and legal forms – societies, societies, cooperatives.

A company is an association of persons established to carry out business activities. An important advantage of the company is the ability to raise additional capital. Each of the members of the company bears equal material responsibility regardless of the size of his contribution. The members of the company are divided into two groups: general partners (unlimited liability company) and limited partners (limited liability company).

A company is created with the consent of at least two citizens or legal entities by combining their contributions for the purpose of economic activity. Members of a limited liability company are not liable for its obligations. They are liable only in the amount of the value of their contributions. In contrast, the members of the additional liability company are liable for all their property.

The most common are joint stock companies. Their difference is that they are given the right to raise the necessary funds by issuing securities – shares. In this case, the members of the joint-stock company are responsible for the results of its activities in the amount of the value of their shares.

An enterprise created by a group of persons for joint production or other economic activity is called a cooperative. Mandatory in the cooperative is the personal labor and other participation of its members in the activities of the cooperative, as well as the association of property shares of its members.